Family "Cellar Door" Shotgun Used 1840s in Bartholomew County Second most prized family possession
This powder cellar door shotgun was used by three generations in Bartholomew, Johnson and Shelby Counties. The last time fired may have been in the 1920s, but not sure of actual year. The age is not determined but is at least 160 years old or older. Hammer flint fire type. The shotgun has been passed from generation to generation and now is secured to be continued in the family.
Hartsville College Indiana Main Building Erected, 1860-1865 Burned Down January 30, 1898 Bartholomew County, Hartsville Indiana
Location: Hartsville is located 13 miles from the Columbus Airport. It is 15 miles from 3rd Street downtown Columbus or 20 minute drive.
Quote: In April, 1847, the voters of Haw Creek Township, IN met in Hartsville and concluded to build a new school. When completed, it was to be used for school purposes, for religious worship and for all lawful public meetings of the citizens. The United Brethren in Christ was making arrangements to establish a college in the state.
In February, 1849, the citizens of Hartsville made the proposition to the UBC that they would complete and turn over to the church the new college building with the understanding that it was to be used for college purposes. On May 26, the transfer was made. The institution, founded with the express purpose of training young men and women with limited means, was chartered on January 12, 1850, under the name of Hartsville Academy.
As enrollment increased, a new building was built and opened in 1860. On January 30, 1898, the college burned to the ground, believed to be the result of arson. The college then relocated in a more central area in Huntington, where a college had opened in September, 1897. End Quote
Source:Archives of Depauw University and Indiana United Methodism
For More Details From Huntington College Archives Go Here:
The American Flag had 15 stars and 15 stripes from 1795 to 1818. During those 23 years span 5 states were added before the flag was changed to 20 stars and 13 stripes. The states added (by order) were Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, and Mississippi. The new 20 Star and 13 Stripe flag looked like this:
Look-back: Bartholomew County Land Surveys were conducted around the time General Tipton happened to stop by in 1819 & 1820. Approximately 1 year after Indiana became a state. The only President to serve under this flag was James Monroe (1817-1825).
Pioneers and Land Purchases Before County was named Bartholomew County 1819-1821
The future county (Bartholomew) was not freed from Indian Title until the New Purchase Treaty of 1818. In 1820, the land which is now Columbus was bought by General John Tipton and Luke Bonesteel. General Tipton built a log cabin on hill overlooking White River and the surrounding flat, heavily forested, swampy valley. The town was known as Tiptonia, named in honor of General John Tipton. During 1821 the town's name was changed to Columbus and the counties official name was named Bartholomew. The county was named after General Joseph Bartholomew.
Great, Great Grandfather William P. Records and his son Laban entered land grants in the latter part of 1819, in what was supposed to be called Bartholomew County effective 1821. History documents within publications and Historical Indiana documents show William P. Records and Labon Records entries during 1820. The significance of this is that they were among the small land owners before the County was named Bartholomew County. The land surveyors had plotted the area lands starting around 1819 through 1820. The surveyor’s names and dates recorded were:
. B. Bentley/ May 30, 1820 . W.B. Laughlin/ July 23, 1819 . John Hendricks/ 1820 . J. Hedges/ November 11, 1819 . Abraham Lee/ May 31, 1819
Land sold for $2.00 per acre during that period
Additionally, William’s father and mother Spencer & Elizabeth Records moved from Ohio to Bartholomew County in 1821 and entered land grants that year. As pioneers were moving into Bartholomew County areas during 1819-1821, there were less than small numbers of families. However between 1819 through 1825 there were a recorded number of approximately 75 to a few hundred families and many family members. General Tipton was not part of the count. He was upset because of the naming of the county and name change to Columbus in lieu of Tiptonia. Not all pioneers arriving had log cabins immediately. There were at least 4 cabins and many make shift shelters, tents such as animal pelts until cabins were complete. Many times one cabin was shared with other families until new cabins were finished. Weather conditions and diseases such as Ague slowed the process greatly. Ague disease took a great toll of lives during that period until around 1900. Many of my family members died of Ague complications. Interesting is that the word Ague (shakes and fever or malaria) is archaic old English and is mentioned in the Bible only once. The word is presented at King James Version only at Lev. 26:16. Ague took the biggest death toll among all Indian tribes throughout all the land states claimed. Fewer whites died from the "fever and ague" because they had access to quinine. Two years after Bartholomew County “became a county” the first Court House was built 1823. The recordings of land ownership, sales were retained in documents, books and family memoirs until a court house arrived. Columbus Republican Newspaper, Bartholomew County, Indiana April 10, 1886 printed that during the years 1819 to 1825 that the county had at least 75 to several hundred family members. Pioneer influx of family accelerated through 1830. The Bartholomew County census in 1830 revealed 5,480 settlers and a state population estimated at 344,508.
Sources & References: Brant & Fuller, History of Bartholomew County (Chicago 1888) page 373, Indiana Magazine of History Volume LV, December 1959, Indiana History Volume I, Logan Esarey, Spencer Records' Memoir of the Ohio Valley Frontier, 1766-1850. Draper Manuscripts obtained from Spencer Records.
Brief On First Indiana Seal: The earliest recorded use of a seal for the Indiana Territory is on court documents signed by Governor William Henry Harrison in January 1801. “This is the seal of Indiana, setting sun, buffalo and man cutting tree. The buffalo’s tail is down and the head is opposite the sun. The word Indiana is on a scroll in the branches of the tree.” The seal below is the actual first Indiana seal starting in 1800. There were three modifications to the seal during the years 1863, 1960 and last change was in 1963. There was a seal for general territory use dated 1787.
History of Bartholomew County Court House From 1823 to 2007 The site of the county seat was chosen on February 15, 1821 by a team of commissioners, who suggested the name Tiptona; on March 20, the name Columbus was adopted.
The first Court House was a Log Cabin in 1823 Note: This is not the actual court house just a sample from 1872. The first court house may have been more crude.
The Columbus land was first bought by General John Tipton and Luke Bonesteel. Tipton departed in 1821 and it is assumed that Luke Bonesteel stuck around. History indicates that the first Bartholomew County court house was located in Luke Bonesteel's cabin. The address doesn't make sense to me but it was on 2nd and Lindsay Street. The population of the county when Luke Bonesteel's cabin was used for court fillings and procedures was very small.
The Present Court House Built in 1874
Since the early days the county court house outgrew the cabin and then in 1874 the present court house located on 3rd and Washington Street was complete. Today, the court house serves over 71,400 citizens of Indiana. This includes more than 27,000 households.
In 1822 the Indian Tribes Still Owned Half The State:
One year after Bartholomew County and Columbus was established and documented this picture below reflects the state in 1822:
Heavy populations in the lower 1/4 of the state, but flatboats coming from the Ohio river continued to offload hundred of settlers daily. Settlers came from Kentucky, Ohio and Northern and Eastern States and settlements. They migrated slowly using horses, oxen and carts or pole drags, in tough terrain and lack of roads.
Buffalo Trails Settler’s Trades Indiana Territory 1800-1816 before Bartholomew County Recognition Later
Well before the New Purchase Treaty of 1818 which allowed Bartholomew County and Columbus to join in the state terrain, many settlers were thriving from Southern Vincennes all the way to deep Southern New Albany area of today. The first state capital was established in Corydon Indiana, which is located in Harrison County. The map below circled numeric 3 is the original capital city of the state during the state development periods.
States from New Jersey progressing to the present day West were abundant of wild buffalo, and Indiana was no exception. The main buffalo trail or trace ran from Vincennes through Palmyra Indiana and passing several miles from the former state capital of Corydon Indiana. They entered the Ohio River at some point South to head to Kentucky. My family memoirs, writings and letters reveal the usefulness of buffalo hides and the delight of the smoked or roasted meat, and at times salt and dry cured. The writings confirm arrival in Kentucky in 1783 and following buffalo trails for up to 40 miles near the Ohio River.
Then 37 years later they migrated across the Ohio River into the early Indiana days during 1820 and 1821. The recognition and awareness of the buffalo traces provided hides for trade, shelters and fresh meat. During one family hunt six buffalo were killed with six shots and it took six horses to transport the animals back to the settlement area. The hides were the salvation of shelter during those days until the trees could be downed and cabins built. Upon their arrival in Bartholomew County in 1820 they utilized the animal hides to erect tents until spring arrived and cabins were erected.
Early one morning a hunter came upon an abundance of buffalo. Insects were a big problem at times around the herds. The animals seemed to attract insects which made it difficult at times to shoot and dress them out. Sometimes men would have to cover themselves with bear grease to survive the insects in order to shoot and retain the carcass.
Present day US Highway 150 from Vincennes to Palmyra Indiana was a primary Indiana buffalo route. During those years around 1800 there were only 6,550 pilgrims of various skills and trades. Approximately 2,500 folks lived around Vincennes, which included 50 traders. The remaining balance of settlers were located mostly near the Ohio River settlements.
The Indiana Seal rightfully shows a buffalo since 1800 before later settlers destroyed the American buffalo herds nationwide. Many herds were destroyed as an unnecessary rifle sports, riding trains and other absurd ways.
Brief on Map Below:
The map below indicates Indiana Territory after February 3, 1809. Indiana was given this boundary with the exception the northern boundary would add a ten-mile strip in 1816. Below numbered circles are as follows: (1) Vincennes (2) New Albany (3) 1st State Capital Corydon) and (4) future Bartholomew County and Columbus later in 1821 and (5)Palmyra Indiana .
1st Capital Building Corydon (actual picture)
Note: The lower very dark black line is the buffalo trails in the 1700s and 1800s. The actual trail went from Vincennes near Palmyra area somewhat and across the the Ohio River; then meeting up with the present day Interstate I-64 all the way to Lexington Kentucky. The blue grass of the Lexington area must have been a major attraction for the buffalo. Apparently, the buffalos would swim the Ohio River to stay within the trails. The heavy black line into Corydon was not a buffalo trail.[/color][/b]
Indiana Map 1809 (7 years before Indiana was a state)
Additional Note: The Indiana State Constitution was signed under a giant elm tree on June 10, 1816 by 43 delegates in Corydon, the first Capital of Indiana.
References & Sources: Family memoirs, letters, writings and newspaper articles. History of Indiana, Volume 1 Esarey.
Library of Congress Senate Bill 40th Congress 2nd Session Year 1867 This is the actual Bill S. 185
Asking for money of $2,000 to pay for damage of grounds at the Bartholomew County Agricultural Society caused by the military 10th Regiment of Indiana Cavalry. Senate Bill submitted December 11, 1867 and rejected April 23, 1868.
Interesting Facts: The Civil War started April 12, 1861 and it ended May 26, 1865. It seems this Bill was submitted in Congress approximately 18 months after the Civil War ended.
Comment: From the history files of the Library of Congress
The Composite Relationship of the Indiana State Flag 1917 and the 20 Star United States Flag in 1818
General Information: The American Flag had 15 stars and 15 stripes from 1795 to 1818. During those 23 years span 5 states were added before the flag was changed to 20 stars and 13 stripes. The states added (by order) were Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, and Mississippi.
Composite Insight to Indiana state flag 1917:
. The torch stands for liberty and enlightenment
. The rays represent their far-reaching influence
. The thirteen stars in a circle represent the original thirteen states
. The five stars in the circle represent the next five states (Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, and Mississippi) added to the 15 star flag
. The large star is Indiana, the nineteenth state (Mississippi was 20th state).
Columbus Indiana's Former American Starch Company An 1875 company long gone but not totally forgotten
Comment:The company published an almanac and cookbook in 1883 and a copy of these books are located in the University of Delaware Library.
Information On The Cook Book: American Starch Company, Columbus, Ind. Almanac and Cook Book Dedicated to the Lady Patrons of the American Starch Company. Columbus, Ind.: American Starch Company [ca. 1883].
Orville & Wilbur Wright Parents Had Exposure To Hartsville Indiana Hartsville is 13 miles from Columbus Indiana (Bartholomew County)
Bishop Milton Wright 1828-1917 Susan Koerner Wright 1831-1889
Wright's Parents Brief Background: Milton Wright (father) became an ordained minister of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ in 1856. Susan Wright (mother), who moved with her family to Union County, Indiana when she was 1 1/2 years old, met Milton in 1853 at Hartsville College, a United Brethren institution. They were married on November 24, 1859. Milton moved with his family to Dayton, Ohio in June, 1869 after his election as editor of the United Brethren newspaper, The Religious Telescope. He was elected a bishop in 1877. Milton and Susan lived in Dayton for the rest of their lives except for the period 1878-1884, when Milton was assigned elsewhere (1878 to 1881, Cedar Rapids, Iowa and 1881 to 1884, Richmond, Ind.). Susan died from tuberculosis in 1889 at the age of fifty-eight. Milton died much later, in 1917, at the age of eighty-eight.
Former Hartsville College Kitty Hawk kite Glider Flight 1900
1901 Glider being flown as a kite, Wilbur at left side, Orville at right at Kitty Hawk.
The famous son's parents Bishop Milton & Susan Wright were exposed to Hartsville Indiana because of the relationship at the former Hartsville College (1850-1898). Milton Wright was a Bishop of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Additionally, he was in charge of the printing of church publications and articles. He spoke many times to the faithful at seminaries in Hartsville, Indiana.
Mother Susan Wright stayed home with her children, but she had attended Hartsville College in Indiana, where she excelled in literature and science and was at the top of her class in mathematics which was highly unusual for the time!
As the daughter of a carriage maker she was also skilled with tools and had a mechanical aptitude that she shared with her children. She built sleds, made toys and fixed household appliances. She encouraged her sons to build things and learn how things worked.
So in summary the Wright Brothers parents had heavy roots in Dayton Ohio, exposure in Hartsville Indiana and their father may have been aware of the Kitty Hawk North Carolina success during the year 1900. There mother had a large influence on there mechanical abilities through encouragement and faith by their father. The mother died before the son's famous flights of aircraft at Kitty Hawk.
Comment: The picture at Kitty Hawk was the first flight and actual picture taken in the year 1900. Picture of brothers flying Glider in 1901 from files of the Library of Congress. Hartsville College was founded in 1850 and burned down in 1898.
Congressional Bill To Release Land To Sell In Indiana Including Bartholomew County Year 1820 (187 years ago this date) Noteworthy is Columbus' land was included in the authorization as General Tipton was well aware of. The Bill below taken from the Congressional files for your viewing reflects Alabama and Indiana throughout the three pages of the the Congressional Bill. Bartholomew County was considered the 2nd Congressional District referred to in the Bill text below. This Bill is from the 16th Congress during the first session.
First Commercial Stage Coach Routes To Columbus & Vincennes Indiana (Years 1820 & 1828) Traveling in the early coaches was not a pleasant experience in general. If the roads were wet, there was a danger of overturning. If the roads were dry the passengers had to hold on tight, because the coach would bounce from rock to rock and hole to hole etc. Crossing a stream or creek was higher risk and tough.
The stage coach roads followed mostly the trails/traces of the pioneers that drove through the trees and terrain with oxen and horses, by cutting the terrain to make way for a faster development.
First Stage Coach Service In State:
During the spring of 1820 a man named Foyles started a stage coach line from Louisville Kentucky to Vincennes Indiana. The general route is the present day US Highway 150. This is considered the oldest route, road (trace) in the state. It must have been a task to haul the stage coach across the the Ohio River (if performed) by flatboat. However, I guess we can assume that a staging area was at New Albany Indiana area, and then boated (flatboat) across to Kentucky and then staged into location in Louisville.
This stage coach line continued to operate until it was replaced by the train system provided by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad just before the Civil War (around 1860). The Civil War was during 1861-1865. In other words the first line was in service for about 40 years.
Second Stage Coach Service In State:
The very first advertised stage coach line was developed by a man named John Wilson. This was considered the second commercial stage coach line started in the state of Indiana. The service commenced in Madison Indiana, through North Vernon area through Columbus, then Franklin and to the final destination of Indianapolis. It took approximately 22 hours by stage coach from Indianapolis to Columbus and also another 22 hours from Columbus to Madison during the year 1828. The present day Indiana State Highways 7 and 46 from Madison to Columbus are the general pioneer roads (traces) that were utilized for the early stage coaches. In general US 31 today through the Franklin terrain to Indianapolis is the trace road system used in 1828.
Cost of Trips/Baggage:
In general the price 6 1/4 Cents per mile, and baggage was free up to 15 pounds.
Other Stage Coach Services:
After 1830 many Stag Coach lines opened up that included service from Dayton/Cincinnati Ohio to various places in the government released settlements of the state. Additional places in Indiana included Rushville, Lawrenceburg, Napoleon, Greensburg and Shelbyville Indiana. Some of these trips became more expensive such as a two day trip one-way cost around $5.50. Reference Sources: Indiana Journal May 15, 1835 and Indiana Journal December 24, 1829. The picture of a Stag Coach is not an actual early Indiana service.
Indiana's Early Government By County During 1816 Forward
Circuit courts were established throughout the authorized territories as treaties were signed and Congress approved the sale of land. County lines and names were attached to the developed locations.
The governor of Indiana directed and appointed sufficient numbers of justices so that one or more would be be located in every neighborhood. Circuit courts were overviewed by territorial judges.
Each county had a sheriff, treasurer, coroner, clerk and one or more constables. All of these positions were appointed and commissioned by the Indiana Governor. In the beginning there were no jails, but as time progressed a limited few were built, but small and very few.
Example of Crimes and Punishment:
Petty Larceny- The penalty was immediate public whipping, on the bare back, not to exceed fifteen lashes.
Horse Thieves-They were hung by rope because early pioneers had neither jails nor jailers to take care of the long term criminals. Also, in most cases horse thieves were considered in general murderers.
Selling Whiskey To Indians- At some point selling hard whiskey to Indians became illegal. There are records to indicate that some pioneers were hung by the rope after being caught selling whiskey to them.
In general public whippings were common. This was brutalizing and demoralizing but it helped maintain order.
The first sheriff in the state of Indiana was John Small, a citizen of Vincennes. This is before Bartholomew County and Columbus was authorized for development and land sale.
References & Sources: History of Indiana, William Henry Smith, The Laws & Courts of the North west and Indiana Territories, D.D. Banta, The Maxwell Code and Logan Esarey, Professor Indiana University 1924
United States Post Offices In Bartholomew County Year 1875 That was 132 years ago
Azialia, Burnsville, Clifford, Columbus, Elizabethtown, Hartsville, Hope, Jonesville, Lowell Mills (Grist Mill See Cerealine),Moore's Vineyard, Mount Healthy, Newbern, Saint Louis Crossing, South Bethhany, Taylorsville, Wailesborough, Waymanville and Waynesville.
This is a re post of the 1879 Plat Map of Columbus Township, Bartholomew County, Indiana.
I spent a couple of hours with Mr. Snyder on the afternoon of September 3, 2007 talking about this map. Below information is from parts of our discussion.
Near the top left corner note section # 10. There you will find Lowell Mills. The small type is (Constant Water Power, 9ft. Head of Water). If you follow the Lowell Road, you’ll see that the road running east makes a left turn and then a right turn, just like it does today. Follow that road east to the Railroad. Today the Lowell Road ends there. Before I talk more about the Lowell Road, note the (Lowell Flag Station) listing. Mr. Snyder stated the Lowell Flag Station was a railroad siding stop. The stop included livestock pens and a loading station. The Interurban & Streetcar History thread in this board lists an Interurban schedule and that schedule list a Lowell stop as the first stop north of Columbus.
Now let us follow the Lowell Road to the east/right. Note that a short distance into Section 12, the road turns right/south. After running south approximately ½ miles, it turns east and no doubt ford the Flat Rock River at that point. After fording the river the road travels southeast before turning south. It appears today that the Lowell Road became Washington Street when it entered Columbus.
Notice that The Columbus & Cambridge City Branch railroad is crossing north of town. When that was an active line, it crossed town between 14th and 15th Streets.
Mr. Snyder can remember the area at Donner Park being referred to as Perry Woods. In Section 13 notice the property owner as S. L. Perry as owning 355 acres in that section.
It looks like today’s 10th street is listed as The Hartsville Turnpike.
Note the distance between Columbus and East Columbus. The road that’s running to the southeast from East Columbus is named, Burnsville Turnpike.
South of Columbus in Section 35 Bartholomew County owns 160 acres at the County Poor Farm.
I see both the Carr Hill and Youth Camp Roads is shown on this map.
Today’s route of SR 46 West is listed as (Driftwood Valley Turnpike, J I Irwin).
At the top right of this map is Farmerstown. That is a name that I don’t think I’ve ever heard or read before.